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About RF Cafe

Copyright: 1996 - 2024


    Kirt Blattenberger,


RF Cafe began life in 1996 as "RF Tools" in an AOL screen name web space totaling 2 MB. Its primary purpose was to provide me with ready access to commonly needed formulas and reference material while performing my work as an RF system and circuit design engineer. The World Wide Web (Internet) was largely an unknown entity at the time and bandwidth was a scarce commodity. Dial-up modems blazed along at 14.4 kbps while tying up your telephone line, and a nice lady's voice announced "You've Got Mail" when a new message arrivedNWT Caslon Off-Duty Stripe Pants (Gray/Mint)

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Tech Industry Headlines

- Crown and Ivy cardigan (Las) -

• WiFi 6 to be 80% of Smartphone Market by 2025

• Race to Dominate Satellite Internet Heats Up

• Wireless Worries Overshadow Triumphs of RF Research

• National Association of Broadcasters (NAB) Show Begins April 23rd

• AT&T Seeks Experimental Licenses for 6G

• China & Russian Space Assets Increased 70% Since 2019

• WInnForum Publishes New RF Transceiver Interoperability Standard

• IC Unit Growth Returns to Normal

• Declining Nitrogen Availability in Nitrogen Rich World (not another "hockey-stick" curve!)

• Ericsson Likely Faces Fines in Iraq Bribery Investigation

Radio Terms Illustrated

Here are a couple more of the much-liked "Radio Term Illustrated" comics, these appearing in the May 1947 issue of Radio-Craft magazine. I probably spend way more time on colorizing these comics than I should. You might think it's easy to just fill in areas with color, but most of the comics are drawn in a manner where outlines of larger objects do not terminate against another line. Being able to use a fill tool requires sealing off the area first. Then there's the case of where an area uses a series of closely spaced lines or cross-hatches. An area fill tool doesn't work well there, either, so the best way I've found is to outline the area with a Bezier curve tool and copy / paste it over itself so it is a separate object, then use a color transform tool to shift the entire area to the chosen color. Even with all that work, the comics rarely turn out the way I'd like them to...

Next-Gen ePaper Delivers Richer Colors

These reports on advances in ePaper technology remind me of the 1990s as color computer monitors were ratcheting up pixel and color count - first with CRTs and then LCD and LED flat panel displays. ePaper is a purely reflective vs. back-lit display. "E Ink's digital paper, often called ePaper, has found a home in e-readers, displays, and even covering cars. Balancing the need for high-quality displays and power requirements has always been a challenge. It started as a gray scale display, but color ePaper displays have been available for a while. The latest generation, E Ink's Kaleido 3, takes the quality to a new level. It can deliver 16 levels of gray scale and 4,096 colors. This new display increases color saturation by 30% compared to the earlier Kaleido Plus. It can display animations and videos. The Kaleido 3 employs a color filter array (CFA) that's used in conjunction with E Ink's Carta black-and-white ink film. The display also uses the company's ComfortGaze, a front-light technology designed by E Ink's Front Light Team..."

Carl & Jerry: Eeeeelectricity!

Wikipedia claims there are about 350 species of electric fish. Jerry tells fellow electrical and electronics experimenter Carl that the electric eel is not an eel at all, but a fish. Actually, the eel is a fish (a knifefish); however - and I needed to look this up - a true eel is a member of the fish order Anguilliformes, which the electric eel is not. Having no expertise in the field of eels, I'll leave it at that. Jerry's uncle, who is an active duty Navy guy, somehow managed to ship an electric eel to him for experimentation purposes. Doing so might have been possible in 1956 when this episode of "Carl & Jerry" appeared in Popular Electronics magazine, but today it is doubtful. Besides that, how to you mail an electric eel to somebody? The pair's measurements of voltages and pulse widths jive pretty well with modern data. Here is a story about how electric eels curl to obtain higher voltages for stunning prey...

The XML Guts of an Excel Workbook File

Some years ago while first developing my "RF Cascade Workbook" spreadsheets, I read that when Microsoft began using the XML file format for Excel with the 2007 version (Office 12), what appears in the File Manager as a *.xls or *.xlsm (*.xls with VBA‡ macros) is actually a compressed collection of individual XML files and possibly a *.bin and any images you might have buried within. If you want to see what actually makes up your Excel file, follow these simple instructions. A word of warning though, as Otto von Bismarck is reported to have admonished†, "Laws are like sausages. It is better not to see them being made." After seeing what goes into an Excel file, you might loose your taste for them (not really, it just seemed like an apt quotation at the moment). There may be another way to dissect an Excel file, but probably the easiest is the following...

Arvin Models 152T, 153T Schematic & Parts List

This "Radio Service Data Sheet" from a 1948 issue of Radio News provides schematics and parts lists for Arvin Models 152T and 153T receivers. Most - if not all - electronics servicemen had subscriptions to these magazines because they were a ready source of not just these service sheets, but because of the extensive articles offering advice on servicing radios and televisions. In fact, many electronics manufacturers had a policy of supplying service data only to bona fide shops. A large list is included at the bottom of the page of similar documents from vintage receiver schematics, troubleshooting tips, and alignment procedures. They were originally published in magazines like Radio-Craft, Radio and Television News, Radio News, etc. I scan and post them for the benefit of hobbyists who restore and service vintage electronics equipment...

RF & Electronics Stencils for Visio

With more than 1000 custom-built stencils, this has got to be the most comprehensive set of Visio Stencils available for RF, analog, and digital system and schematic drawings! Every stencil symbol has been built to fit proportionally on the included A-, B-, and C-size drawing page templates (or use your own page if preferred). Components are provided for system block diagrams, conceptual drawings, schematics, test equipment, racks (EIA 19", ETSI 21"), and more. Test equipment and racks are built at a 1:1 scale so that measurements can be made directly using Visio built-in dimensioning objects. Page templates are provided with a preset scale (changeable) for a good presentation that can incorporate all provided symbols...

Many Thanks to Withwave for Long−Time Support!

Withwave manufactures an extensive line of metrology quality coaxial test cable assemblies, connectors (wave-, end-, vertical-launch, board edge, panel mount), calibration kits (SOLT), a fully automated 4-port vector network analyzer (VNA) calibrator, between- and in-series connector adaptors, attenuators, terminations, DC blocks, torque wrenches, test probes & probe positioner. Special test fixtures for calibration and multicoax cable assemblies. Frequency ranges from DC through 110 GHz. Please contact Withwave today to see how they can help your project succeed.

Radar Tames the Wild Blue Yonder

The VOLSCAN (Volume Scanning) radar system was a paradigm changer for air traffic controllers charges with guiding aircraft while assuring safe separation. Busy terminal areas were a particularly difficult challenge due to the large variation in aircraft speeds and types. VOLSCAN was a computer that tracked the position, direction, and speed of each target and even made recommendations to controllers for course assignments. It also warned of impending dangerous scenarios. Another VOLSCAN article in the July 1954 issue of Radio-Electronics magazine went into more detail and had color photos of the equipment. Interestingly, the equivalent of maybe the world's first light pen computer interface is used by the operator for letting the processor know what part of the screen (PPI, or plan position indicator) he is referring to...

Eyes of a Generation™... Television's Living History

If ever there was a website that would likely drag a radio and television broadcast historian down into the metaphorical rabbit hole, "Eyes of a Generation... Television's Living History" is it. Like Alice's experience in Wonderland, once you enter the homepage porthole and begin clicking on links, not only will getting back out be difficult, but the journey will introduce you to many fantastic experiences in TV broadcasting which you have never seen before. As the subtitle says, "In essence, this is a Television history book with 5000 stories, 10,000 rare photos and hundreds of one of a kind videos." If you are old enough to remember way back to the 1980s and before, then you will find interesting tidbits of insider and backstage anecdotes about all of the popular television shows of the various eras - back to the very beginning. That includes sitcom, variety, and news types. Included in the collection is a wealth of photographs and videos, along with histories of the electronic equipment and its inventors that made it all possible. You will also find never-seen-before film footage of live taping sessions, TV show production, interviews, and documentaries. Did you know that David Letterman owned the entire "Late Night" franchise...

"Printed Wiring" Techniques for the Experimenter

In part one of a two-part article, Popular Electronics magazine presents some of the inner workings of what at the time was a fledgling industry - printed circuit board manufacturing. In 1956, when this piece appeared, a large percentage of electronics assemblies were still being wired in a point-to-point manner where resistors, capacitors, inductors, tubes, and cables were soldered directly to terminals either on special blocks or on tube sockets. The process was heavily labor intensive and prone to miswirings. High volume production was nearly impossible prior to printed wiring boards (PWBs). Bell Telephone Labs was an early adopter and driver of the technology. A good example of an early telephone PWB can be seen in the 1970s vintage Snoopy telephone that I reconditioned a while back. Note the rat's nest of wires going to the network terminal block...

Lithium Niobate Laser Chip for High-Powered Telecoms

"For all the recent advances in integrated lithium niobate photonic circuits - from frequency combs to frequency converters and modulators - one big component has remained frustratingly difficult to integrate: lasers. Long haul telecommunication networks, data center optical interconnects, and microwave photonic systems all rely on lasers to generate an optical carrier used in data transmission. In most cases, lasers are stand-alone devices, external to the modulators, making the whole system more expensive and less stable and scalable. Now, researchers from the Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences (SEAS) in collaboration with industry partners at Freedom Photonics and HyperLight Corporation, have developed the first fully integrated high-power laser on a lithium niobate chip, paving the way for high-powered telecommunication systems, fully integrated spectrometers..."

International Kadette Model 66 and 666 Radio Service Data Sheet

This "Radio Service Data Sheet" covers the International Kadette Model 66 and 666, superheterodyne receiver. Most - if not all - electronics servicemen had subscriptions to these magazines because they were a ready source of not just these service sheets, but because of the extensive articles offering advice on servicing radios and televisions. In fact, many electronics manufacturers had a policy of supplying service data only to bona fide shops. A large list is included at the bottom of the page of similar documents from vintage receiver schematics, troubleshooting tips, and alignment procedures. They were originally published in magazines like Radio-Craft (this April 1936 issue), Radio and Television News, Radio News, etc. I scan and post them for the benefit of hobbyists who restore and service vintage electronics equipment...

RF Cascade Workbook

Coach coat size 4 is the next phase in the evolution of RF Cafe's long-running series, RF Cascade Workbook. Chances are you have never used a spreadsheet quite like this (click here for screen capture). It is a full-featured RF system cascade parameter and frequency planner that includes filters and mixers for a mere $45. Built in MS Excel, using RF Cascade Workbook 2018 is a cinch and the format is entirely customizable. It is significantly easier and faster than using a multi-thousand dollar simulator when a high level system analysis is all that is needed. An intro video takes you through the main features...

Thanks to PCB Directory for Continued Support!

PCB Directory is the largest directory of Printed Circuit Board (PCB) Manufacturers, Assembly houses, and Design Services on the Internet. We have listed the leading printed circuit board manufacturers around the world and made them searchable by their capabilities - Number of laminates used, Board thicknesses supported, Number of layers supported, Types of substrates (FR-4, Rogers, flexible, rigid), Geographical location (U.S., China), kinds of services (manufacturing, fabrication, assembly, prototype), and more. Fast turn-around on quotations for PCB fabrication and assembly.

Technology Themed Crossword Puzzle for April 17th

Here is your custom made Technology-themed crossword puzzle for April 17th, 2022. All RF Cafe crossword puzzles are custom made by me, Kirt Blattenberger, and have only words and clues related to RF, microwave, and mm-wave engineering, optics, mathematics, chemistry, physics, and other technical subjects. As always, this crossword contains no names of politicians, mountain ranges, exotic foods or plants, movie stars, or anything of the sort unless it/he/she is related to this puzzle's technology theme (e.g., Reginald Denny or the Tunguska event in Siberia). The technically inclined cruciverbalists amongst us will appreciate the effort. Enjoy!

Promote Your Company on RF Cafe for as Little as $40/Month

New Scheme rotates all Banners in all locations on the page! RF Cafe typically receives 8,000-15,000 website visits each weekday. CIRCUS BY SAM EDELMAN Western Hermosa Ankle Boot - Size 7 is a favorite of engineers, technicians, hobbyists, and students all over the world. With more than 12,000 pages in the Google search index, RF Cafe returns in favorable positions on many types of key searches, both for text and images. New content is added on a daily basis, which keeps the major search engines interested enough to spider it multiple times each day. Items added on the homepage often can be found in a Google search within a few hours of being posted. I also re-broadcast homepage items on LinkedIn. If you need your company news to be seen, RF Cafe is the place to be.

Please Visit Empower RF's Website in Appreciation of Their Support

Empower RF Systems is a global leader in power amplifier solutions. Empower RF Systems is an established and technologically superior supplier of high power solid state RF & microwave amplifiers. Our offerings include modules, intelligent rack-mount amplifiers, and multi-function RF Power Amplifier solutions to 6 GHz in broadband and band specific designs. Output power combinations range from tens of watts to multi-kilowatts. Unprecedented size, weight and power reduction of our amplifiers is superior to anything in the market at similar frequencies and power levels.

The Future of the Transistor

For many years, Radio-Electronics magazine editor Hugo Gernsback and Audion tube inventor Dr. Lee de Forest had sort of a mutual admiration society thing going on. that's understandable because they we both men of great accomplishment and are deserving of everyone's admiration. In this 1952 issue, Dr. de Forest was invited to procrastinate on future of the transistor - the semiconductor equivalent of his amplifying vacuum tube. He humbly states, "If in the year 1912 some editor had requested of me an article on the 'Future of the Electronic Tube,' I probably would have felt quite as incompetent and short-sighted a prophet of the developments of that [...], as I feel today as Mr. Gernsback requests from me an outlook over the future of the transistor, [the] possible successor of the grid tube." Less than four yeas had passed since the Bell Labs trio announced their transistor invention, but the technology advanced quickly once made known. History shows Dr. de Forest was correct in predicting the vacuum tube and transistor (in all their various forms) would coexist for a long time. It was not until the 1980s that solid state devices had replaced nearly all tubes (except the CRT display)...For many years, Radio-Electronics magazine editor Hugo Gernsback and Audion tube inventor Dr. Lee de Forest had sort of a mutual admiration society thing going on. that's understandable because they we both men of great accomplishment and are deserving of everyone's admiration...

I Married a Superheterodyne!

Based on beleaguered wife Sylvia Kohler's mention of GE's Electronics Park in this story (surely a fable... or not), she and unintentional antagonist, superheterodyne hubby (aka "Happy Boy," but we know him as Popular Electronics cartoonist Carl Kohler) probably lived in the Syracuse, New York, area. Electronics Park (technically in Liverpool/Salina) existed during the hey days of General Electric when the sprawling campus , just north of I-90, designed and manufactured a plethora of both household (TVs and radios) and military electronics products. GE's Electronics Laboratory ("E-Labs") was the company's pride and joy. Today, a tiny portion of Electronics Park is still occupied by Lockheed Martin, who bought that GE division in the 1990s, and the rest belongs the city. I worked there for about two years. But I digress... enjoy the story (I highlighted her reason for referring to hubby as a Superheterodyne)...

Reactel Waveguide Filter Video

Reactel, industry leaders in the design and manufacture of RF and Microwave filters, diplexers, and sub-assemblies from DC to 67 GHz, recently produced a new video short on Waveguide Filters. Benefits of waveguide filters include very low insertion loss, extremely narrow bandwidths, high power handling, and very sharp band edge rolloff. Custom sizes and shapes are available, along with many variations on duplexers, diplexers, multiplexers, switched filter banks, and other configurations. Many off-the-shelf products are available, and Reactel engineers are happy to assist you with determining your system's needs and designing filters to help you succeed. Please take a couple minutes to view this video, then give Reactel a call.

"Back on the Air" Musical Tribute to Ham Radio

The "Up Front" page of the May 2022 issue of QST magazine mentions a musical tribute to ham radio entitled, "Back on the Air," by Allen Chance (W2BUZ) and Paul Rogers. It has a soothing melody and the video is accompanied by photos matching the lyrics as it goes along. You probably have to be a Ham operator to appreciate the message and visuals. A repeating CW CW CW in Morse code can be heard in the background. Warning: If you are easily triggered by a couple "guy" pictures, this video is not for you; please move on...

Multi-Impedance Dipole Antennas

Maybe I suffer from cranial rectumitis at the moment, but I'm having a hard time with a statement made in this 1953 issue of QST magazine about coaxial feedline impedance, to wit, "102-ohm line (52-ohm lines in series)." I must be missing something because I don't understand how placing two 52-ohm transmission cables in series results in twice the impedance. Aside from that, author John Avery presents an interesting article on multi-impedance dipole antennas. Empirical data is presented on how the feed−point impedance of a dipole varies with distance above the ground. His results are very close to theoretical values which assumes non-sagging elements, perfectly linear alignment, a perfectly conductive ground, etc. He then extended his investigation into 2-wire (4x impedance) and 3-wire (9x impedance) folded dipole antennas...

Industrial Chemistry - It Meets Demands of War

In 1942 and throughout the War Years, Life magazine (and many others) ran many articles promoting industries, services, organizations, and individuals who contributed toward our ultimate victory. Of course no one knew for certain that we would prevail in the end, but if it hadn't turned out that way, it wouldn't have been for lack of effort and sacrifice. Part of the objective was to inform the populace about how the country was pooling its resources - physical, labor, and mental - to defeat the Axis Powers that sought to takeover the world. This particular issue of Life focused on the chemical industry, with the raw materials and processes used to produce needed products both for fuel and for the base components of other finished goods. Sulphur, potassium, and coal mining and processing, along with petroleum, common table salt, and air and water were some of the most fundamental ingredients of every other item needed to aid the effort. Ever hear of Ameriopl rubber?

Please see the RF Cafe Homepage Archives for previous items of interest...

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